• Jupiter is a gas giant planet composed mostly of hydrogen and helium.
  • Jupiter is the largest planet in our Solar System, and is has about 318 times the mass of Earth.
  • Jupiter’s layered atmosphere is striped with different chemical bands at different altitudes.
  • Jupiter’s Great Red Spot is a giant storm similar to a cyclone on Earth. It is over 400 years old and large enough to hold the entire Earth more than twice!
  • Jupiter has at least 79 moons, including four large moons discovered by Galileo; Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.
  • The moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System.
  • Jupiter’s moon Europa is an icy frozen world with liquid water oceans beneath its surface.

Launch Date: August 5, 2011
Early Juno science results have revealed Jupiter as a complex, gigantic, turbulent world, with Earth-sized polar cyclones, plunging storm systems that travel deep into the heart of the gas giant, and a mammoth, lumpy magnetic field. Source: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/juno/overview/

Galileo Jupiter Atmospheric Probe
Launch Date: October 18, 1989
The Galileo spacecraft and probe traveled as one for almost six years. In July 1995, the probe was released to begin a solo flight into Jupiter. Source: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/galileo-probe/in-depth/

Launch Date: October 18, 1989
Galileo was designed to make the first study of Jupiter and its moons and magnetosphere from orbit. The orbiter carried 10 science instruments and an atmospheric probe. Source: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/galileo/overview/

Voyager 1
Launch Date: September 5, 1977
Voyager 1 successfully flew by both the Jupiter and Saturn systems before continuing out into the farthest most reaches of our solar system. Source: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/voyager-1/in-depth/

Voyager 2
Launch Date: August 20, 1977
Voyager 2 is the only spacecraft to study all four of the solar system’s giant planets at close range. Source: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/voyager-2/in-depth/

Pioneer 10
Launch Date: March 3, 1972
Pioneer 10, the first NASA mission to the outer planets, was the first spacecraft placed on a trajectory to escape the solar system into interstellar space; first to fly beyond Mars; first to fly through the asteroid belt; first to fly past Jupiter; first to use all-nuclear electrical power, and the first human-made object to fly beyond Neptune. Source: https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/pioneer-10/in-depth/

Published: March 7, 2018
This composite infrared image, derived from data collected by the Jovian Infrared Auroral Mapper (JIRAM) instrument aboard NASA’s Juno mission to Jupiter during a Feb. 2, 2017, pass over the planet, shows the central cyclone at the planet’s north pole and the eight cyclones that encircle it. JIRAM collects data in infrared, and the colors in this composite represent radiant heat: the yellow (thinner) clouds are about 9 degrees Fahrenheit (-13°Celsius) in brightness temperature and the dark red (thickest) are around -181 degrees Fahrenheit (83°Celsius).

Source: NASA/JPL-Caltech/ Space Science Institute
Published: November 11, 2014
Research suggests effects of sunlight produce the color of Jupiter’s Great Red Spot. The feature’s clouds are much higher than those elsewhere on the planet, and its vortex nature confines the reddish particles once they form.

Source: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute
Published: June 13, 2003
This true color mosaic of Jupiter was constructed from images taken by the narrow angle camera onboard NASA’s Cassini spacecraft on December 29, 2000, during its closest approach to the giant planet at a distance of approximately 10 million kilometers (6.2 million miles).

Published: May 8, 2019
Historical Date: August 27, 2016
This infrared image gives an unprecedented view of the southern aurora of Jupiter, as captured by NASA’s Juno spacecraft on August 27, 2016.
The planet’s southern aurora can hardly be seen from Earth due to our home planet’s position in respect to Jupiter’s south pole. Juno’s unique polar orbit provides the first opportunity to observe this region of the gas-giant planet in detail.